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2008年3月29日 (土)


Science For All Americans 勝手に翻訳プロジェクト Chapter 10: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES



The term "Industrial Revolution" refers to a long period in history during which vast changes occurred in how things were made and in how society was organized. The shift was from a rural handicraft economy to an urban, manufacturing one.




The first changes occurred in the British textile industry in the nineteenth century. Until then, fabrics were made in homes, using essentially the same techniques and tools that had been used for centuries. The machines—like all of the tools of the time—were small, handmade, and powered by muscle, wind, or running water. That picture was radically and irreversibly changed by a series of inventions for spinning and weaving and for using energy resources. Machinery replaced some human crafts; coal replaced humans and animals as the source of power to run machines; and the centralized factory system replaced the distributed, home-centered system of production.



At the heart of the Industrial Revolution was the invention and improvement of the steam engine. A steam engine is a device for changing chemical energy into mechanical work: Fuel is burned, and the heat it gives off is used to turn water into steam, which in turn is used to drive wheels or levers. Steam engines were first developed by inventors in response to the practical need to pump floodwater out of coal and ore mines. After Scottish inventor James Watt greatly improved the steam engine, it also quickly came to be used to drive machines in factories; to move coal in coal mines; and to power railroad locomotives, ships, and later the first automobiles.



The Industrial Revolution happened first in Great Britain—for several reasons: the British inclination to apply scientific knowledge to practical affairs; a political system that favored industrial development; availability of raw materials, especially from the many parts of the British Empire; and the world's greatest merchant fleet, which gave the British access to additional raw materials (such as cotton and wood) and to huge markets for selling textiles. The British also had experienced the introduction of innovations in agriculture, such as cheap plows, which made it possible for fewer workers to produce more food, freeing others to work in the new factories.

産業革命は最初にイギリスで起こった。これにはいくつかの理由がある。すなわち、科学的知識を実際的な仕事に応用しようとするイギリスにおける傾向、工業発展を支持した政治体制[1]、原料(raw materials)[2]が、特に大英帝国の多くの場所からこれらがもたらされ、利用可能だったこと、そしてイギリスがさらなる原料(raw materials)(綿花や木材)を利用することや織物の売り付け先となる巨大な市場への往来を可能にした世界最大規模の商業艦隊、である。イギリスはまた、農業において、安価な耕作器[3]のような新機軸を導入することを経験していた。これは以前よりも少ない労働者でより多くの食料を生産することを可能にし、その他の労働者を新しい工場で働くことへと開放したのである。

[1] political system というと政治上の制度のように思えてしまうのですが、ここでは当時の政権が工業発展を支持したという意味だと読むべきだと思うので、思い切って「政府」と意訳してしまってもいいかもしれません。
[2] raw materials なのですが、とりあえず「原料」と訳してありますが、もうちょっと広い意味での資源というべきかとも迷っています。
[3] 原文での cheap plows なのですが、直訳すれば「安い鋤」となります。ですが鋤のような比較的単純な農具が安価になったからといってそれが innovation という言葉で語られるような変化の事例とはとても思えないのです。実際この時代の農業革命の中心は農法の改良だったはずですし。辞書によれば plow には耕作地という意味もあるようですが、「安い耕作地」というのもこれまた innovation の事例としてはよくわからない内容になってしまいます。というわけで、ここでの原文がどんな事例を提示しようとしていたのか想像できていません。少し抽象的に「楽な耕作」というような意味なのだろうかとも想像しましたが、これでは such as と語られるような具体例になっていませんし……


The economic and social consequences were profound. Because the new machines of production were expensive, they were accessible mainly to people with large amounts of money, which left out most families. Workshops outside the home that brought workers and machines together resulted in, and grew into, factories—first in textiles and then in other industries. Relatively unskilled workers could tend the new machines, unlike the traditional crafts that required skills learned by long apprenticeship. So surplus farm workers and children could be employed to work for wages.


[1] 辞書的な意味で「ほとんどの家庭は除け者にされていた」ではあんまりなので意訳しておきました。


The Industrial Revolution spread throughout Western Europe and across the Atlantic to North America. Consequently, the nineteenth century was marked in the Western world by increased productivity and the ascendancy of the capitalistic organization of industry. The changes were accompanied by the growth of large, complex, and interrelated industries, and the rapid growth in both total population and a shift from rural to urban areas. There arose a growing tension between, on the one hand, those who controlled and profited from production and, on the other hand, the laborers who worked for wages, which were barely enough to sustain life. To a substantial degree, the major political ideologies of the twentieth century grew out of the economic manifestations of the Industrial Revolution.



In a narrow sense, the Industrial Revolution refers to a particular episode in history. But looked at more broadly, it is far from over. From its beginnings in Great Britain, industrialization spread to some parts of the world much faster than to others, and is only now reaching some. As it reaches new countries, its economic, political, and social effects have usually been as dramatic as those that occurred in nineteenth-century Europe and North America, but with details shaped by local circumstances.



Moreover, the revolution expanded beyond steam power and the textile industry to incorporate a series of new technological developments, each of which has had its own enormous impact on how people live. In turn, electric, electronic, and computer technologies have radically changed transportation, communications, manufacturing, and health and other technologies; have changed patterns of work and recreation; and have led to greater knowledge of how the world works. (The pace of change in newly industrializing countries may be even greater because the successive waves of innovation arrive more closely spaced in time.) In its own way, each of these continuations of the Industrial Revolution has exhibited the inevitable and growing interdependence of science and technology.


[1] greater knowledge を一言では訳しかねてこのような言葉にしてみましたが、ニュアンスとしてはこれで適当でしょうかね? 他に良い表現があればぜひ使わせてもらいたいところではあります。



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