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2008年4月 8日 (火)


Science For All Americans 勝手に翻訳プロジェクト Chapter 3: THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY


Technological and Social Systems Interact Strongly

Individual inventiveness is essential to technological innovation. Nonetheless, social and economic forces strongly influence what technologies will be undertaken, paid attention to, invested in, and used. Such decisions occur directly as a matter of government policy and indirectly as a consequence of the circumstances and values of a society at any particular time. In the United States, decisions about which technological options will prevail are influenced by many factors, such as consumer acceptance, patent laws, the availability of risk capital, the federal budget process, local and national regulations, media attention, economic competition, tax incentives, and scientific discoveries. The balance of such incentives and regulations usually bears differently on different technological systems, encouraging some and discouraging others.



[1] この technological systems はどういう日本語にしたものかと悩んでいます。social systems と対になって system という言葉が使われていますが、social systems の方はそのまま社会システム=社会制度や体制など社会の構造のこと、として良いかと思いますが、technological systems の方は技術システムと言ってしまうと具体的に何を指しているのかわからない言葉になってしまうと思います。文脈からしますと、体系付けられた個々の技術分野を指しているように読めるのですが、そうすると日本語としては、単に「技術」という言葉が一番適当でしょうか。
[2] incentive も日本語で一言で表すのには苦労してしまいまして、特に後に出てきた部分では大きく言葉を補って意訳してあります。


Technology has strongly influenced the course of history and the nature of human society, and it continues to do so. The great revolutions in agricultural technology, for example, have probably had more influence on how people live than political revolutions; changes in sanitation and preventive medicine have contributed to the population explosion (and to its control); bows and arrows, gunpowder, and nuclear explosives have in their turn changed how war is waged; and the microprocessor is changing how people write, compute, bank, operate businesses, conduct research, and communicate with one another. Technology is largely responsible for such large-scale changes as the increased urbanization of society and the dramatically growing economic interdependence of communities worldwide.



Historically, some social theorists have believed that technological change (such as industrialization and mass production) causes social change, whereas others have believed that social change (such as political or religious changes) leads to technological change. However, it is clear that because of the web of connections between technological and other social systems, many influences act in both directions.


[1] [3-31]でも出てきましたが、この technological systems は日本語では単に「技術」というべきかもしれません。
[2] web の日本語への置き換えに悩んだ末に大きく意訳してみました。



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